Hi Suz, welcome!
You've got a lot going for you already: good job, mainly low-interest long-term debt, a new home, and no more abusive husband.
It sounds like you should consult a lawyer -- if you haven't already! -- about the potential black mark on your credit score and whatever other legal ramifcations there might be to his walking away from the joint mortgage. Ugh.
It would help to see a budget of your monthly expenses, if you're willing to share. Easier to help talk about where you should start if we know where you're starting from!
The standard advice would probably be to pay off the furniture debt first, and save yourself an emergency fund (1k to start, then three months worth of actual expenses; work up to six or nine or whatever makes you most comfortable).
As for how to prioritize, I think there are two main approaches: 1) save a little bit out of every paycheck for each savings goal (retirement, e-fund, prepay mortgage, etc) and watch the balances slowly creep up simultaneously, or 2) focus all your savings power on one goal until you reach it, then turn to the next one (first retirement, then the prepay, etc). Your own psychology will help you determine which way to go. Are you a tortoise or a hare?
As for how to reach your goals, my mantra has been automate, automate, automate. If it isn't in my checking account, I can't spend it. I set up a bunch of savings accounts in ING Direct for various goals (hobby purchases, e-fund, car replacement, bathroom remodel) and annual expenses (christmas travel/shopping, vet bills), and every year I sit down and decide where my automatic deposits are going to go. This year, for instance, I decided to switch from approach 1 to approach 2 because I want to see my mortgage balance go down faster and build up an investment fund. The only things I haven't automated are my mortgage prepayments, because I love the satisfaction of sitting down to click that button twice a month, and my credit card payments, because if I charge something I want to be conscious of the short-term debt I carry and feel the obligation to pay it off.