Happier

“Happiness is the meaning and the purpose of life, the whole aim and end of human existence.” — Aristotle

For a long time, I was unhappy. I used to think that this was because of my overwhelming debt. I believed that if I were debt-free, happiness would come to me. It didn't.

After I paid off my consumer debt, I was still unhappy. “Maybe it's my job,” I thought. I'd always hated working for the family box factory; it had been a job of last resort, and I'd never shaken free of it.

But even after I quit my day job, happiness remained elusive. I now know that some of this was due to low-level depression. I've also come to understand that part of the problem was that I expected money to solve my problems. I expected money to make me happy. Money and happiness, however, are mostly unrelated. That's just not how it works.

Happier
While beginning to research for my own book, I recently read Happier by Tal Ben-Shahar. Happier is a great book. Derived from Ben-Shahar's Harvard course on positive psychology, this slim volume summarizes research into the subject of human happiness — and offers exercises to help readers live happier, more fulfilling lives.

Ben-Shahar rejects certain artificial dichotomies our culture clings to. He writes, for example:

One of my students at Harvard came to talk to me after receiving a job offer from a prestigious consulting firm. She told me that she was uninterested in the work she would be doing but felt she could not turn down this opportunity…She asked me at what point in life — at what age — she could stop thinking about the future and start being happy.

I did not accept her question with its implicit either-or approach to happiness. I told her that instead of asking, “Should I be happy now or in the future?” she should ask, “How can I be happy now and in the future?”

This is brilliant. I, too, used to think that my choice was either now or then. I didn't realize I could have both. I believed that in order to have happiness (or wealth) in the future, I had to sacrifice happiness (or wealth) in the present. This isn't the case. Ben-Shahar elaborates:

Some people might be concerned that pursuing meaning and pleasure over accolades and wealth could come at the price of success…I had similar concerns about my own success as I contemplated the shift toward the happiness archetype. The “no pain, no gain” formula had served me well, in terms of quantifiable success, and I feared that my resolve would weaken — that the next milestone would lose its appeal and no longer sustain me as it did when I was a rat racer. What happened, however, was the exact opposite.

The shift from being a rat racer to pursuing happiness is not about working less or with less fervor but about working as hard or harder at the right activities — those that are a source of both present and future benefit.

Ben-Shahar advocates balance. We find happiness when we consider tomorrow and today. People are happy who perform meaningful work that challenges them. They have goals — and the freedom to pursue them.

Happiness Boosters
Throughout the book, Ben-Shahar offers a series of exercises designed to boost the reader's happiness. I'm the sort who usually loathes activities and exercises in self-help and personal-finance books, but I liked these. In fact, I've briefly summarized a handful of them below:

  • Create rituals. Ben-Shahar urges readers to do the things they love: reading, walking, gaming, knitting, whatever. But because it can be difficult to make time for these activities, he argues that we should create rituals around them. At a specific time every day, do the thing you love. For example, I've recently made it a ritual to walk a couple of miles to have lunch most afternoons. This makes me happy.
  • Express gratitude. I don't do this enough. Research indicates that you can enjoy a heightened sense of well being by keeping a daily gratitude journal. Just jot down five things you're grateful for every day. It's okay to repeat yourself from one day to the next. This exercise forces you to become conscious of the good things in your life.
  • Set meaningful goals. When I was younger, I set goals that had little relation to who I was or what I wanted. I set goals based on what I felt was expected of me. For a goal to be worthwhile, it has to be related to your own interests. And it has to add something to your life. Pursuing meaningful goals can bring happiness to your life. (And note that it's the pursuit of the goals that brings happiness, not the attainment of them.)
  • Play to your strengths. Ben-Shahar is a fan of Appreciative Inquiry. (That website is awful, by the way — it's written in jargon.) Appreciative Inquiry ignores the things that do not work and looks instead what has been successful. By focusing on past positive outcomes, you can build upon your strengths. Do what you're good at. (This reminds me of Tim Ferriss' philosophy in The 4-Hour Workweek: “Emphasize your strengths, not your weaknesses.”)
  • Simplify. Ben-Shahar writes: “To raise our levels of well-being, there is no way around simplifying our lives. This means safeguarding our time, learning to say ‘no' more often — to people as well as opportunities — which is not easy. It means prioritizing, choosing activities that we really, really want to do, while letting go of others.” As Derek Sivers recently wrote on his blog, if an opportunity doesn't make you say “hell yeah!”, you're better off saying “no”.

Happier provides plenty of other practical tips. It's a goldmine of useful information.

Best Summer Ever
As I shared a couple of weeks ago, this has been one of the best summers of my life. I feel fulfilled. I am happy. Why? There are a number of reasons:

  • I'm doing meaningful work that challenges me.
  • I feel like I'm helping other people. I get e-mail every day that tells me I'm making a difference in people's lives.
  • I'm making time for exercise. I've been walking five or six or ten miles every day. (This Sunday, I plan to walk 26.2!)
  • I'm reading more. I've always been a voracious reader. Pop fiction, personal finance, Proust — you name it. But for the past three years, I haven't been able to read as much as I'd like. This summer, I've changed that.
  • I'm spending more time with family and friends.
  • I'm allowing myself to indulge in my hobbies once again. As you know, I cut back on comic book spending while working my way out of debt. I still have a budget for comics, but it's not nearly as restrictive as it once was.

In short, I'm balancing the present with the future. I'm still looking out for tomorrow, but I'm not overlooking today. All of this reminds me of the end of Laura Ingalls Wilder's Little House in the Big Woods. It's a cold winter evening and young Laura is listening while Pa plays “Auld Lang Syne” on his fiddle.

When the fiddle had stopped singing Laura called out softly, “What are days of auld lang syne, Pa?”

“They are the days of a long time ago, Laura,” Pa said. “Go to sleep, now.”

But Laura lay awake a little while, listening to Pa's fiddle softly playing and to the lonely sound of the wind in the Big Woods. She looked at Pa sitting on the bench by the hearth, the fire-light gleaming on his brown hair and beard and glistening on the honey-brown fiddle. She looked at Ma, gently rocking and knitting.

She thought to herself, “This is now.”

She was glad that the cosy house, and Pa and Ma and the fire-light and the music, were now. They could not be forgotten, she thought, because now is now. It can never be a long time ago.

At the end of Happier, Ben-Shahar writes that we often imagine that something or someone in the future will bring us happiness. Or we find ourselves stuck in the past. But the key to happiness, he says, is to live in the now. “Rather than allowing ourselves to remain enslaved by our past or future,” he writes, “we must learn to make the most of what is presently in front of us and all around us.”

Go forth, my friends, and be happy.

For more reading on happiness, check out Gretch Rubin's excellent blog, The Happiness Project.

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Lydia
Lydia
11 years ago

Very good article, J.D. One thing I think Ben-Shahar missed competely, it seems, was the happiness one derives from doing things for others. Giving to charity, working at a food bank, visiting the sick in the hospital, providing something small for someone in need, etc. Making a difference in someone elses life always makes me happy. And I have to add this, true joy and sustainable peace only comes from having relationship with Christ.

Dotty
Dotty
11 years ago

What a great post to read first thing in the morning!

To quote Ziggy: “Happiness doesn’t depend on how much you have to enjoy but how much you enjoy what you have”.

Cheers~

Brenda
Brenda
11 years ago

“Money and happiness, however, are mostly unrelated.” Maybe somewhat, but they’re definitely related on some level. I was DEFINITELY a LOT happier when I was at least making a living wage. These last two years have been the saddest, most depressing years of my life, mostly due to lack of money, caused by the lack of a steady job that provides a real living wage. I’ve had to scrape out a living on poverty level wages and the charity of friends and family. Depressing? YOU BET. Not having enough money to even survive is pretty darn depressing. Worrying about ending… Read more »

Frugal Bachelor
Frugal Bachelor
10 years ago

JD, You live in the USA state which has the most depressing weather in the whole country – and consistently rated one of the unhappiest places to live in the world, and has the highest suicide rate on the planet. Do you think WEATHER has an impact on happiness? I look at the list of happiest countries on the planet, and virtually all of them lie between the Tropics and have beautiful weather. Places like North America, Europe, and Japan are unhappy because the weather is awful for all for but a few months of the year of the year… Read more »

JKC
JKC
10 years ago

Ironically, I just finished reading Julia Baird’s article “Positively Downbeat” in this week’s (October 5th) Newsweek. I found it interesting that there were 4,000 books published last year on the subject of happiness, up from 50 in the year 2000. I won’t summarize the article here, but the pull quote is “That’s the funny thing about the obsession with smiley-faced happiness. The more we study it, the less happy we become.” Happiness is an elusive and subjective state. I am glad you have had the pleasure of soaking in it recently. Great review. Thanks for posting.

JKC

Anon
Anon
10 years ago

@ Lydia (post #1),

I know that the USA is 78.4% Christian (Hard to believe if you live in a major metropolitan area, but true). However I would like to suggest that Jews, Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus and Atheists (Most of whom have no relationship with Christ) can also be happy.

Miranda
Miranda
10 years ago

While outside things can influence our happiness and our situation, in the end, we need to realize that we have a large amount of control over our own happiness. If we keep looking for something else to “make” us happy, it’s going to be a long search.

Nancy L.
Nancy L.
10 years ago

To me, the issue is more about learning to quantify “enough”. A deficit of anything–money, free time, etc.–is clearly going to lead to unhappiness. But a surfeit can be just as bad, if not worse, than a lack. For example, if you eat too much food, you will either gain weight or have a stomach ache. Or if you leave it sitting around, it goes bad. Any one of those outcomes will cause you to feel guilt and/or dissatisfaction, and because you have the additional belief that you *should* be happy and satisfied because of your excess, the disappointment is… Read more »

Sara A.
Sara A.
10 years ago

Re: Comics –

Most people don’t know this, but the public library has comics! They usually only carry the paperback or hardcover collections, so you will get them a while after they are released as a single issue. But it’s free! And you can use Inter-library loan to borrow from other cities if your city only has volumes 1,2,4 & 5 and you need volume 3.

Mike
Mike
10 years ago

First off, good luck on that marathon this weekend. Which one are you doing? Just remember to stay hydrated. Second, the question of should I be happy now or in the future I think is one that plagues a lot of people, but I know it does me for sure. Right now, I am not very happy at my job. There is no room for growth, the hours are very rough, and I am under the gun all the time. But, the money is very good and the job is secure…for now. However, I dread getting up every day. My… Read more »

Chickybeth
Chickybeth
10 years ago

Too early in the day for so many trolls. Blah!

Thanks for the uplifting post. I’m thinking of my things to be thankful for right now!

Chickybeth
Chickybeth
10 years ago

P.S. To Mike #10, my husband also works in IT and is completely stressed out daily. He recently switched jobs and promised me that things would be different, but they are the same. I am getting the impression that all of IT is like that. Maybe try something new but try to use your computer skills in the new endeavor? Or maybe all the IT workers of the world should form a union and fight “the man”? 😀

J.D.
J.D.
10 years ago

@Lydia (#1) Ben-Shahar and most writers on happiness do acknowledge that helping others is a source of happiness. It’s one of the things that keeps appearing in my research. @Frugal Bachelor (#4) Oregon is ranked as an unhappy place? I didn’t know that. I do know, though, that the weather does affect me. It took me a long time to realize this, but it’s true. I don’t mind the rain, but six months of the stuff can start to drag on a fellow’s spirits! I think it’s clear by now that I suffer from Seasonal Affective Disorder. Last winter was… Read more »

Suzanne
Suzanne
10 years ago

There is another way in which research shows that happiness is not related to lifestyle (ie money) but about the experiences we have and the memories we make. It has been shown that we all have a base level of happiness (I’m sure we can change it to some degree by following JD’s hints). Large changes in lifestyle give us a temporary boost or fall, but then once we settle into the new lifestyle, we go back to the same level of happiness we had prior. For instance, lottery winners experience a short period of elation, while a widower experiences… Read more »

olga
olga
10 years ago

JD, your blog does make an impact. Personally, I get happier when I do something for others. As for Portland marathon – have the best of times!

Kate
Kate
10 years ago

Wow. Unhappy IT workers. My husband just quit his IT job yesterday, with no other job lined up, because it had gotten so bad that he wasn’t eating or sleeping much. I was not crazy about the situation, since we have had a very expensive year, so the emergency fund is down. If he doesn’t get a job in a few months, we’ll be in trouble. On the other hand, he was so miserable, I really don’t blame him. When he asked my opinion before making this move, I voiced my worry, but I didn’t say “Absolutely not!” either… I… Read more »

HollyP
HollyP
10 years ago

I will second the recommendation of this book. I read it last year and really enjoyed it. I need to find a way to incorporate the concepts into my daily life. (I need to invest in the accompanying workbook.)

Brenda, I am sorry you are having such a difficult time. “Money doesn’t buy happiness” refers to the point on Maslow’s heirarchy of needs above sustenance level, I guess. I wish you better luck soon.

J. Steve Miller
J. Steve Miller
10 years ago

Thanks for this post! If you use the Socratic method when talking to young people about what they want (a Porche, an exciting girlfriend, etc.), then keep asking, “And just why do you want that…”, eventually they tend to come back to, “Because I think it will make me happy.” In my book on finances, I spent the last chapter trying to sum up some of the research outcomes on happiness, using the acrostic HAPPIER: H: Help Others A: Attitude check – Focus on your blessings P: Pursue quality relationships P: Pardon those who wrong you I: Immerse yourself in… Read more »

April
April
10 years ago

I really like this post. Reaching your goals means little if you haven’t figured out how to be happy.

Linear Girl
Linear Girl
10 years ago

Nice post JD. Loved the Little House in the Big Woods reference, as it’s been an influence in my life since I could read.

Jeff Carter
Jeff Carter
10 years ago

One of my favorite quotes from Emerson: “The purpose of life is not to be happy. It is to be useful, honorable, to be compassionate, to have it make some difference that you have lived and lived well… To know that even one life has breathed easier because you have lived. This is to have succeeded.” Timeless advice. A previous comment was made that pursuing it often leads to further unhappiness. I don’t think we are meant to be happy all of the time. We have to allow for periods of unhappiness as a fact of life. I think the… Read more »

virginia @ where you hang your hat
virginia @ where you hang your hat
10 years ago

I posted this on my Facebook page and a friend already remarked that she’s going to start a gratitude journal. 🙂

Todd @ Personal Finance Playbook
Todd @ Personal Finance Playbook
10 years ago

Great post JD! I agree that it’s important for each person to focus on being happy with the life they have right now, today. You can’t live life saying I’ll be happy after x happens, or y occurs. You have to live in the now to truly enjoy and appreciate life.

ebyt
ebyt
10 years ago

Good post! I really agree with you. When I finished university last year and was going in a different direction in my life (job, moving out, etc.), I wasn’t very happy. I had a lot of debt too.. some student, some consumer, and all I did was look to the future, but in the past year or so I have learned that hinging your entire life on future hopes does not make for happiness. I have been happier as I have set goals and paid down the bulk of my debt (should be debt free before next April!), but I… Read more »

ebyt
ebyt
10 years ago

I just read the comments on the weather and I agree that weather is HUGE. I live in Canada, and it gets COLD and we have snow for about 7 months of the year. I was born in Europe, but long story short, we ended up staying here. It’s a goal of mine to move to either a warmer part of the country (like Victoria) or back to Europe. Ideally I’d like to split my time between England and Canada, but I need money to do that. I really think I suffer from seasonal affective disorder… it’s kinda hard not… Read more »

steve weaver
steve weaver
10 years ago

@Brenda I understand completely how you feel. In the early 90s I was going through a divorce, hyperthyroidism,(I lost down to 125 pounds and I’m over 6 foot tall) was unemployed and living with my father, who was constantly undermining the little self-esteem I had left. Yes, that caused depression and also a form of mild mental illness. I received $400 from an income tax return and used that to move into a boarding house in downtown Atlanta. I rented a room for $250, for the month, in a house that actually had raccoons living in the walls. It took… Read more »

Jason D Barr
Jason D Barr
10 years ago

J.D., this was a great article. Thanks. I enjoy your personal finance writing, but I LOVE IT when you hit more explicitly on the psychological side of things, and this definitely did.

mjukr
mjukr
10 years ago

Eckhart Tolle’s “The Power of Now” is another great book that deals with the idea that there really is no point in hoping for happiness in the “future”, because the concept of the future is just a construct of the imagination. “Now” is all we have…

Maddie
Maddie
10 years ago

@ Frugal Bachelor #4 *Actually* Denmark and Iceland (and even Switzerland) rank as some of the happiest places on Earth. There is snow and NO SUN for a large portion of the year in Iceland. While I think weather can affect your *mood* I don’t think it affects your happiness and satisfaction with life. I grew up in Panama, and did my undergraduate in South Bend, IN (GO IRISH!)–HUGE difference in weather. I hate winter. But it never really made me unhappy, just grumpy. I still had my school work (which I enjoy, weird, I know) my friends, my health… Read more »

Brigid
Brigid
10 years ago

Well written Grasshopper.

There is a similar mentality among the overweight that once they are down to a “normal” size, life will be better for them. More often than not – it isn’t.

Happiness has to come from within – divorced of the outside environment. Acceptance of yourself and your life just as it is right now brings happiness. The need to buy or eat things to mask your unhappiness will no longer be necessary. Happiness comes first and the rest follows.

Cheers!
Brigid

Kevin M
Kevin M
10 years ago

RE: playing to your strengths – there is a quote I love:

“Too many people overvalue what they are not and undervalue what they are.”
— Malcolm Forbes

elisabeth
elisabeth
10 years ago

I think that Brenda’s point needs to be underlined — as a culture, wouldn’t we all be happier if we knew that there was a real “safety net” that would ensure that no one has to have those feelings of desperation and despair about their economic situation?! This year, I found out that a cancer I thought had been cured in 2005 was back — metastasized, which means that it can’t be cured. But, it can be controlled, at least at the moment, and after a few bad months, I find I have come back to my baseline of happiness.… Read more »

mjukr
mjukr
10 years ago

To all the miserable IT people: if you have reached a point where you are ready to simply quit, I suggest you try setting firm boundaries instead. After all, if you are willing to simply walk away, then start drawing lines in the sand with abandon. What’s the worst that can happen, you will be fired? You will then be in the same place as if you had walked away. So, start saying “no” to new responsiblities, demands for overtime, etc. If you are burdened with too many projects, tell your manager “I have too much on my plate, please… Read more »

Moneymonk
Moneymonk
10 years ago

After I paid off my consumer debt, I was still unhappy

same here!

Happiness is a condition it comes and goes

Same as sickness and anything else

schmei
schmei
10 years ago

JD Roth, you just made me cry. But you didn’t make me sad. 🙂 For those who say weather can make one miserable: my husband and I crave snow and cold. It makes us both feel alive, and I love coming home to our cozy place after a run out in the cold, and snuggling on the couch with hot drinks, good books and our purring kitty. Weather does affect us – but it affects us all differently. (And Vitamin D supplements help if you live in a place with little sun!) I found this summer that, though my personal… Read more »

Linear Girl
Linear Girl
10 years ago

@elisabeth – I don’t think a safety net makes us any happier. It probably does make us less anxious but not really happier. I have a family safety net I’ve never used (my family could and would lend money or a bed if needed) and my guy does not. He grew up quite poor and as an adult he’s always known that no one else could bail him out of a jam. Of the two of us, he is by far happier, more able to live in the now and enjoy what he’s got without worrying about what comes next.… Read more »

Sam
Sam
10 years ago

I love Rubin’s Happiness project and her Happiness project toolkit. I agree with her mantra that happiness is made up of little steps in the right direction, working on controlling yourself, your response to events and not everyone else and its a project a quest, a habit.

Certainly, paying off all our non-mortgage debt increased my happpiness levels because I had a lot less bills to pay every month and reduced debt gave us more comfort.

Financial Samurai
Financial Samurai
10 years ago

Great article! Being happy is just doing what you love to do and accepting what you have.

Progress is happiness for me, whatever I do.

DC Portland
DC Portland
10 years ago

JD, thanks again for the wonderful blog. Today’s entry about Shahar’s book Happier really hits home with me. I spent the past year studying with the leading positive psychologists and earning a master’s degree in positive psychology from Penn. I had lunch with Shahar one day, and what struck me most about him is his sense of humor. He is a very funny man! I think that you truly understand the “science of human flourishing” better than just about any blogger in the universe – you summarize the important points well. I can tell you from literally thousands of hours… Read more »

Meghan
Meghan
10 years ago

Thanks so much for this post. What Ben-Shahar said about trying to succeed but not being happy really spoke to me. I’m in grad school and feel like there is a lot of pressure to succeed because the job market is so competitive. So it does feel like this constant rat race to just add stuff to your CV–the need to be constantly publishing, presenting at conferences, applying for prestigious fellowships, scholarships, and on and on and on. I find that I keep telling myself that I’ll be happy in the future when I have a career, more money, success,… Read more »

Foxie@CarsxGirl
10 years ago

This is the type of stuff I crave! I need all the reinforcement I can get, because it seems that so few people in the world realize that life can be as great or mundane as we want it to be, it’s all what we make it and what we do with our time… Not fifteen minutes ago I spent $216 on my Miata. This is something that’s been a long time coming, the replacement of her 12 year old catalytic converter. It’s also what I hope will fix a rattling issue that popped up. (I believe, when the car… Read more »

Jane
Jane
10 years ago

I think Elizabeth (@32) has a valuable point. It’s interesting that according to research, the countries with the ‘happiest’ populations are also the countries whose governments provide a ‘safety net’ for their most disadvantaged citizens. The fact that these countries happen to be in colder climates would indicate that it is social policies that contribute to the overall ‘happiness’ of a society and not the climate. By and large, people who don’t have to worry about whether they will be able to eat, find shelter or have access to a doctor when they need one are ‘happier’ than those who… Read more »

Rob Bennett
Rob Bennett
10 years ago

I think that the tip re expressing gratitude is a great one. Happiness is not a “what” question, it is a “how” question. What I mean is that there is no “x” that makes us happy, it is how we feel about “x” that does the trick. When we express gratitude for “x,” we really start to feel good about having it. That’ the opposite of how we intuitively expect it to work. But my experience is that, once you express gratitude for something, you start really feeling thankful for it. So don’t forget to say grace before meals! In… Read more »

Cate B
Cate B
10 years ago

“Upon the whole, therefore, she found, what has been sometimes found before, that an event to which she had looked forward with impatient desire, did not in taking place, bring all the satisfaction she had promised herself. It was consequently necessary to name some other period for the commencement of actual felicity; to have some other point on which her wishes and hopes might be fixed, and by again enjoying the pleasure of anticipation, console herself for the present, and prepare for another disappointment.”
– Jane Austen (Pride and Prejudice)

Tyler Karaszewski
Tyler Karaszewski
10 years ago

Tell this to all the delayed gratification “I eat ramen every day! At 8% annual return, each dinner I replace with ramen will turn into $7,000 when I’m 65!” people.

You only live once. Why save all your enjoyment for when you’re 65-80 (after which you’ll probably be dead). That’s a waste of *65 years* of your life doing nothing but preparation for being old, so that when you’re old you can talk about “financial independence” smugly.

Brian
Brian
10 years ago

Great post, I’m going to check this book out. I second Eckhart Tolle books. I like the “Power of Now”, but even more, “New Earth”. He also has some good videos on youtube. He was suicidal for many years and then just woke up and realized living in the present was the key. He goes into more detail explaining it, talking about the ego. Personally, I have a hard time balancing it, but am coming around. I also think taking anything too seriously leads to misery. It seems the more unmeaningful a job is the more people try to act… Read more »

J. Hook
J. Hook
10 years ago

JD,

Ecclesiastes 2:26 says:
“To the man who pleases him, God gives wisdom, knowledge and happiness, but to the sinner he gives the task of gathering and storing up wealth to hand it over to the one who pleases God. This too is meaningless, a chasing after the wind.”

Sounds like it fits your situation. Learn to live for God.

Scott
Scott
10 years ago

Terrific post, and terrific conversation! You’ve obviously touched a button for a lot of people here. I do believe that each of us has to define happiness for ourselves, and often times that involves unraveling those “prescriptions for happiness” that have been ingrained in us – lots of money, success, etc.

Molly
Molly
10 years ago

Today is the first day of a eight week paid sabbatical from my main job. Things have been beyond stressful for the last eight months, so the break is a great gift. My objective for the sabbatical is simple: revel. In everything. All the time. I don’t know how well I’ll do, but it’s the best antidote I can think of to the events of the past year!

Victoria
Victoria
10 years ago

@Brenda #3: Thank you for your perspective. I find that many people who say money can’t buy happiness forget that money makes one affrod experiences that may bring happiness. I, too, have discovered that money can purchase experiences that may make you happy. I love travelling and it makes me happy. I need money to travel. Last night my cousin was in town for a conference. I haven’t seen him in five years and my brother and I decided to go out for dinner with him. We had a great time and were happy. Guess what made it possible –… Read more »

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