The Battle of the Bulge, and the Battle of the Budget

Summer's here, so I've been working on my bikini body. But I'm not getting very far. I've lost about three pounds over the past three weeks. If you saw me, you may not think that I'm overweight, but that's only because you haven't seen me naked (yet). The truth is, as the temperatures became warmer, I pulled my shorts out of storage, and about half of them didn't fit.

So I've been cutting back on the bad carbs and processed foods, and every night my wife and I try to do the DVD exercise program P90X (though it's often more like P45OUCH). We also get in a couple of runs each week, and I occasionally ride my bike to work. This past weekend, several fellow Fools and I traversed the via ferrata in the mountains of West Virginia, which was exhilarating and exhausting. (Here's a video made by my colleague, “Shaky Buck”; I'm the guy in the light-blue shirt.)

But after three weeks of a better diet and much more exercise, I still have lost just three pounds, and have yet to re-add a pair of shorts back into the rotation. I figure I have to lose at least another 10 more, preferably another 20.

You may be wondering why I'm telling you, the money-minded GRS audience, about my jiggly parts. Well, I think money management and blubber management have a lot in common. They both rely on smart consumption and good habits that, frankly, aren't a lot of fun. The effects — both good and bad — aren't noticed immediately, which makes the bad habits seem not so bad, and the good habits not so instantly rewarding.

I'm no expert, but I bet eating and spending affect the same areas of the brain. (Neuroscientists call it the “You're all mine and no one else can have you” area…I think.) And I think both can induce temporary insanity. It's almost like a haze, when that primitive, reptilian part of your brain takes over, telling your more evolved, rational brain to just shut up and enjoy what's comin'. Soon afterward, your frontal lobe awakens from its stupor, and you say to yourself, “Why the heck did I eat/buy that? What was I thinking?”

There's also the link between eating too much and spending too much on food. However, that link isn't always so strong. Eating better can actually cost more. If you'd like, we can discuss it over lunch at Whole Foods. You'll see what I mean.

Fasting for thin and profit
The question I put to you today, gentle reader, is whether it might make sense occasionally to engage in some extreme fiscal or physical fitness in order to see bigger results sooner, which could serve as encouragement to keep going.

I tried this once before with my diet, cutting out everything except vegetables and lean proteins. That included no more caffeine or any kind of sugar. After a few days, I didn't feel so great — kinda like I had the flu. I mentioned this to a nutritionist, and she said, “Your body isn't made to tolerate such extreme changes. It is revolting.” (To which I replied, “Many women find my body revolting.”) So I added back coffee and cereal to my diet, which eventually led to bread and pasta, which eventually led to chocolate milk and ice cream, and, ultimately, chocolate-covered lard. The slippery slope is greased with Hershey syrup.

But now I wonder — after giving in a bit this weekend and consuming some not-so-healthy foods, partially out of discouragement — if a radical change wouldn't be the better strategy, at least for a while. Wouldn't I see more results by severely limiting the calories and increasing the exercise, which would inspire me to keep going and stick with it?

The financial equivalent would be a spending diet; over a month (or two or — gasp! — three), only spend money on the necessities. No new clothes, no dining out, maybe even suspend the cable service. All books, movies, and periodicals come from the library, or not at all. Perhaps even institute a rule that if you must buy something, you must also sell something of roughly equivalent value on Craigslist or eBay.

Just as you use a scale to keep tabs on your weight, you'd have to monitor the benefits of your spending diet. If you're in debt, the freed-up cash flow would go to paying it down. Otherwise, it could go into a savings account or retirement account (though if it's invested in something other than cash, you'll have to separate the effects of your additional saving from the effects of gyrating markets). The determination and sense of accomplishment could compound along with the savings, and you might just learn that you can get along just fine with some of those expenses you thought were important.

Maybe you'll save so much money that you can eat whatever junk you want, knowing that your billions can eventually be used to pay MIT scientists to create bionic replacement body parts for you. Sorta like these guys.

J.D.'s note: I dearly, dearly want to embed the photo Robert linked to, but I can't. It's an image of Warren Buffett and Bill Gates eating cheeseburgers and milkshakes at the Hollywood Diner in Carter Lake, Iowa. But the photo is from Fortune magazine, and I can't legally use it here in this context.

 

OK, maybe a financial fast won't make you as wealthy as Warren Buffett or Bill Gates (though Buffett's license plate used to read “THRIFTY”). And, as far as I know, their body parts are still organic. But I do think it's funny that two of the richest people in the world are eating at a diner. On one hand, you'd think they have the money and the smarts to eat healthier. On the other hand, just looking at the picture makes me want to run salivating to Steak ‘n Shake.

As for severely restricting eating or spending, obviously, it can go too far (as demonstrated, in my opinion, by this person — make sure you check out the last day of her third consecutive 40-day fast). That's one of the risks. Another: You can't stick with the extreme changes, and you feel even more like a failure.

Clearly, I'm not quite sure how I feel about all this. But I'm sure that you, being the smart GRS reader that you are, will add your thoughts in the comments below. I certainly hope you do. In the meantime, I'll be right here, shopping online for a bikini that is more flattering for my figure.

J.D.'s note: Oh my word. I have so much to say on this subject, and I don't know where to begin. As you all know, I've dubbed 2010 the Year of Fitness. My sole goal is to lose 50 pounds, and so far I'm on target. There are absolutely parallels between fitness and finance, but there are many differences, too. I'd write more about this now, but I've got to go ride my bike to the gym…

More about...Budgeting, Health & Fitness

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Everyday Tips
Everyday Tips
10 years ago

It is so true, I have often thought that diet and money are so closely tied. So many principles that apply to one also apply to the other. Couple things regarding P90X… I tried it, and I was one crabby woman. What probably made me crabby was doing that intense exercise along with following the ‘diet plan’, which isn’t really a restrictive diet plan, but it does force you to cut out a lot of garbage. Apparently my body loved garbage and hated pain. (I have spine and knee problems. I think P90X would be incredibly beneficial for people without… Read more »

Karen in MN
Karen in MN
10 years ago

Chocolate-covered lard!!? So funny! (And apparently your cravings are just like mine!)

I do agree there’s a strong link between self-control over your spending and self-control over what you put in your mouth. For both, the longer you practice the self-control, the easier it is to achieve your goals.

Rusty
Rusty
10 years ago

I have found that like anything focus and change are the necessities of making changes in body and finance. I recently lost 15 lbs (over 4 months), mainly from diet. I went from 185 to 169-170. What I have found that works for me is don’t eat anything processed by man. If God made it or you could place it outside and it would rot in a week or so, then it’s okay to eat (in moderation). If man made it (designed it to sit on a shelf for 3 months), then don’t eat it. If it won’t rot outside,… Read more »

Dotty dot dot
Dotty dot dot
10 years ago

I agree with your nutritionist about not going to to extremes with food, and I’d extend that advice to money as well. Regarding your diet, if you deprive yourself of “bad-for-you-but-oh-so-good-tasting” food too quickly and for too long, you run the risk of rebounding at such a rate that you could end up gaining weight by eating too much to make up for that deprivation. I believe the professionals call this the “yo-yo diet”. I think the same thing would apply to financial diets. If you deprive yourself of spending as shock therapy, I think you’ll yo-yo back and shock… Read more »

Dan53
Dan53
10 years ago

I’m about to have a bacon cheeseburger of a vacation. We thought it would be a fun week, but when the bills rolled in, it was too late for second thoughts. Well, at least most of it will be paid for before we leave on Friday, although I suspect there will be some milkshake moments that we’ll be paying off when we return.

Chris
Chris
10 years ago

I think you are on the wrong track. I’m actually kind of surprised to read this here. It’s Get (Rich/Fit) *Slowly*, right? In personal finance and in fitness, focusing too much on achieving short term results and expressing such disappointment after such a short period of time (and by the way, 3 pounds in three weeks is good) are red flags that someone has not got their head all the way into the process yet and might still be learning how to make sustainable changes in their lives. Focus on forming good, sustainable habits (the process) and use your results… Read more »

Peggy
Peggy
10 years ago

JD, you got some OLD info there. You need to take a quick look at “Good Calories Bad Calories” by Gary Taubes. Healthy fats (butter and saturated fats) are good and will help your state of mind, overall health and weight loss efforts. Plastic fats (margarine, “low fat” foods with added sugars and artificial ingredients) are killers. Cut back the sugars (from all forms including carbs) and you’ll be fine.

Don’t expect it to come off like it did 10 years ago, tho. Sorry. 🙁

Lesley
Lesley
10 years ago

I’m surprised to see that you didn’t even mention the importance of another parallel: budgeting! Just like with your money, an important part of dieting is to determine how many calories you should consume in order to achieve your goals (be they loss, maintenance, or even gaining) and then allocating them so that you are consuming appropriate amounts of protein, fruits and veggies, carbs, and even fats. And of course, tracking after the fact so that you know how you “spent” your calories can really help you to see what your problem areas are.

Rebecca
Rebecca
10 years ago

“But after three weeks of a better diet and much more exercise, I still have lost just three pounds”

Okay, this “just” is pretty misplaced there. Losing one pound a week means a calorie deficit of about 3,500 kcal a week, or 700 kcal a day. That is a completely normal and most of all healthy rate of weight loss.

Dink
Dink
10 years ago

The majority of people I see on a daily basis provide enough motivation for me to continue eating healthy and staying fit. I’ll not let myself end up like overweight America.

My goals? Pay off my debts with this office job and then go live cheaply somewhere and run ultras!

Single Mom Rich Mom
Single Mom Rich Mom
10 years ago

Any time you go low carb, you get “induction flu” if you don’t do it properly. There’s ways around that through supplementation with potassium etc. Years ago when I moved away from home and gained my “freshman 40” (maybe 45), I went on one of the popular crash diets of the time – the Scarsdale diet. I lost over 50 pounds in about 2 months and didn’t gain it back until pregnancy hit. I was too proud of my new body I guess. Fast works for me for weight loss – and here’s an article that explains why: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/37018839 Excerpt… Read more »

Alexandra
Alexandra
10 years ago

Actually, I think it is a good idea for some personality types to do some “extreme” dieting at first to see results and get motivated to continue. Yes, your body will feel deprived. Well guess what…dieting is all about deprivation – you are eating less than your body requires to stay at the current weight, and therefore your body will need to go into the fat stores to take what it needs. There are some people who can just chug along at a diet at a slow and steady rate and eventually, years down the road, will lose all the… Read more »

SF_UK
SF_UK
10 years ago

I’d agree with Chris – fast weight loss is not necessarily good – you’re more likely to yo-yo. Why not think of it like compound interest – a small steady investment (small regular weight loss) compounds to give you a larger weight loss, along with the health benefits that come with a healthy weight, and probably psychological benefits too if you’re unhappy with your current weight. Oh, and eating less saves money (but that’s not why you should do it). From experience, losing weight permanently is a matter of changing your attitudes – learning when to stop eating, changing how… Read more »

Shari
Shari
10 years ago

As far as weight loss not being fast enough, a pound a week is not really “slow”. Think of it this way: at that rate, in one year you could lose 52 pounds. Not instant gratification, but it adds up in the end! I lost 20 pounds between January and May, when I reached my goal weight. I lost at about the rate of 1 pound per week. Now I have permanently changed my eating habits and the weight is staying off. I think if it takes a little longer to lose the weight, you are probably less likely to… Read more »

Alex
Alex
10 years ago

I suppose the best approach depends somewhat on the individual, but for me slow and steady works infinity better than extreme adjustments. Whenever I get extreme about lifestyle things I don’t tend to see the accomplishment as a reason to keep going, I get tired and it turns into a reward opportunity and those rewards usually take the form of cake and expensive shoes. I’ve had a much easier time developing good habits by making small incremental adjustments. It’s a lot easier to pass on the cake when I know that I’m not saying goodbye to it forever.

Chiot's Run
Chiot's Run
10 years ago

The great thing is by eating a little less at each meal you’ll lose weight and save money a benefit for your waistline and your checkbook balance. I’ve never been one to make drastic changes in any area of my life since they often don’t take root. Making small changes here and there are more beneficial and easier to keep doing. Keeping your weight steady is just like money management. After a while of staying on top of it you develop the skills to be able to manage it without really thinking about it. I have found that the more… Read more »

Darrin
Darrin
10 years ago

“Wouldn’t I see more results by severely limiting the calories and increasing the exercise, which would inspire me to keep going and stick with it?” This is what we as a society have been trying to do for decades yet failing miserably. Check out the Minnesota Starvation Study to find out what happens when you force a caloric deficit long-term. These guys completely broke down physically and mentally, not to mention they gained everything back and then some when the study was over. Ditto what Rusty said above. Fat storage in the body is regulated primarily by hormones and metabolism,… Read more »

Sarah
Sarah
10 years ago

The problem with dieting is the same problem as restricting your budget for a set amount of time. It will only cause temporary change. Your body is constantly responding to the food you take in, so any change to your diet should always be one that you can commit to permanently because you enjoy it. Instead of saying “I’ll eat less junk and more veggies for three months,” it’s healthier to say “I’m going to make sure I get all six servings of veggies every day. Then I’ll drink more water. After that, I’ll subtract foods with high fructose corn… Read more »

Holly
Holly
10 years ago

I know it took us a full year to turn around our somewhat lax financial habits and to see major results. And Oct. 2008 was the impetus . So maybe the shorts not fitting was Robert’s diet equivalent of the economic meltdown.

The wake-up call is a great motivator.

Now it’s simple: just remember to only eat foods that will help you reach your weight-loss goal.

Adam
Adam
10 years ago

Isn’t 1-2/lbs a week a good goal to shoot for? So 3 weeks in and 3 lbs isn’t that far off at all? Anything more than that and its likely water weight and not sustainable anyway. I, like everyone else here I bet, have friends whose dietary habits are on par with their fiscal habits. It ALL comes down to delayed gratification. You want to eat that donut and buy that iPad; you want to skip the gym and not sign up for your company pension plan contribution (matched 50%!). Some people “get it”, which is to say they can… Read more »

Dlyn
Dlyn
10 years ago

Even though the basics are definitely lifestyle changes (eat well, exercise regularly) every individual is different with different health needs. So while you may think your way is best (which is just may be for YOU)not everyone can follow the same plan. The important thing is to just keep trying. The same with debt reduction or wealth building: spend well and save regularly.

Colleen
Colleen
10 years ago

One lb per week weight loss is the perfect rate!

You can push it so it is more, but, as with fiscal fitness, sometimes when you restrict yourself too much you make things more difficult for yourself and make it more likely you will revert in a severe fashion.

I appreciate the attempt at comparison, but as was pointed out by the nutritionist, there are health concerns regarding crash-dieting that simply don’t exist when you’re talking about finances.

Robin
Robin
10 years ago

As a lifelong dieter who always has at least 20 pounds to lose, I’ve also heard that there’s a link between food and clutter. That once you can clear out physical clutter from your life you can make better choices about eating. I would venture to say that clutter could affect the budget mode too. As you put it so beautifully: the same area of the brain. (Neuroscientists call it the “You’re all mine and no one else can have you” area…I think.) We are in the process of moving and I refuse to move stuff we haven’t used (or… Read more »

Van
Van
10 years ago

But budgeting and “budget fasting” is so, so much easier for me than diet and exercise. I’m naturally thrifty, I’m not naturally fit.

And dammit I want a cheeseburger, RIGHT NOW!

PMT
PMT
10 years ago

There certainly is a psychological link between food and money. The problem with a crash diet (whether food or money) is that in the end all you did was taddress the symptoms and not the underlying cause. This means that nothing has changed and when you finish you will return to your old ways gain the weight, spend the money and end up be overweight and broke. If the super crash diet works to motivate you what will happen when the progress slows after the high-octane nitro boost marathon is over? Either you will have no motivation, or you will… Read more »

lil
lil
10 years ago

Both from personal experience and from seeing others, I do not know a single example of somebody who did an extreme diet (finacially or food) and was able to succeed on a long-term basis. Which is unfortunately to me, because I am an amazing extremist–I have no problem fasting for a set period. The problem with this philosphy, however, is that it is against a basic law: for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. So I fast, I lose a nice amount of weight, I get the reaction I want, so I “deserve” to treat myself. And… Read more »

Trina
Trina
10 years ago

Eating is much more important than exercise for health and weight. A person can be physically fit and still have clogged arteries from a bad diet or be nutritionally lacking. But if you eat well you can get away with little exercise and still feel good and maintain a good body size. Of course, for optimum health it’s best to do both, but the grueling demands of heavy exercise turn so many people off that they just give up.

Shoot for a great diet and EASY exercise (walking in the park, gardening) for general health, happiness and success.

RJ Weiss
RJ Weiss
10 years ago

My wife is a dietitian. I’m a financial planner.

You won’t believe how many times, we come across the same exact behavior issues. I never thought, financial planning and food would overlap so much, but it does.

cikfit
cikfit
10 years ago

Well, 1 lb of body fat is 3,500 calories. 40 minutes on the elliptical, or running at 12min/mile for about 45min burns about 400-500 cals depending on your current body weight. That means, if you do run about 45 min, 7 times a week, you shed 1 lb body fat. So, what I’m saying is, you’re doing fine. And remember that as you continue working out, you build muscles, and muscles are heavier than fat. You may need to pay attention to your heart rate while you work out also. Interval training, that is, keep your heart rate at the… Read more »

Erika
Erika
10 years ago

There are a zillion parallels between money and dieting. However, some people who are good with money can NOT lose weight, and vice versa. As someone who is always struggling with eating, I recently read “Intuitive Eating” to get off the diet train. It’s really interesting. I can’t say it works — I haven’t implemented it fully, but the main thesis is this (from memory; don’t have book in front of me): 1) Many people (like me) are always in a diet mentality. This is good food, this is bad food. I ate too much. Today I ate much better.… Read more »

Nicole
Nicole
10 years ago

There are a lot of similarities, but there are a lot of differences too. It isn’t safe to lose more than 5lb per week. It’s perfectly safe to save as much as you can. The body is much more likely to try to get back into equilibrium (according to something I heard on NPR)… decreasing spending is actually more sustainable because there aren’t chemical reactions going against you. When you have more weight, you burn calories faster. When you have more debt, you lose money faster (more savings, you earn money faster)… they’re opposite reactions. (With exercise you do get… Read more »

Sandy L
Sandy L
10 years ago

28) RJ, if that is the case, then how come it’s harder to control my weight vs controlling my spending?

I see the parallels, but it seems much easier to not spend. Eating is something that has to be done at least 3 times/day, so maybe it’s just an opportunity thing.

Maybe the amount of bad choices I make is about the same, it’s just that the # of times/week I eat is a lot more than the # of times/week I pull out my wallet.

Suzanne
Suzanne
10 years ago

Interesting comparison. It certainly is true for me. I have had an ongoing battle with debt and weight for at least 5 years now, maybe longer. In both my diet and my budget, I have slowly over time found a healthier approach, but my biggest pitfall is my inability to focus and make big changes quickly. In both cases, the big changes would require a jolting change of lifestyle that maybe I’m not ready yet to make.

Wes Y
Wes Y
10 years ago

Exercise, like finances, is very much about ‘what works for you’. For me, crash diets (and budgeting) doesn’t work at all – it’s always followed by a binge. For others, it might be just the impetus they need to shift into a positive habit long-term. Some comments on P90x, though: I’m a personal trainer and part-time model, and recently started dabbling in some of the workouts from that program… holy crap! That stuff is just as intense as the disclaimers make it sound. It is NOT a good program for a relatively sedentary person to start using right away. Instead,… Read more »

SJ
SJ
10 years ago

As for the ‘low carb flu’, it is not uncommon and is not a problem. You’ll make it through! Go to http://www.marksdailyapple.com. It is an excellent way to eat and live!

eileen
eileen
10 years ago
sarah
sarah
10 years ago

For the love of God, please no more atricles waxing on about the similarities between weight loss and personal finance! There have been so many and they all say the same thing! Some of us never let ourselves get that overweight to begin with…just as some of us never made terrible financial decisions. I love this blog but I am really truly sick of this theme. Maybe I should stop reading until the year of fitness is over.

Sara
Sara
10 years ago

There are a lot of parallels between budgeting and dieting, but I’ve always been good at tracking my spending and sticking to a budget, and never good at counting calories (or carbs or fat or whatever the diet du jour is restricting) or sticking to a diet. Maybe I use up all my willpower on money.

Stefanie
Stefanie
10 years ago

Please please please don’t become a fat-hating, fatphobic blog now, like The Simple Dollar! Please don’t!

J.D. Roth
J.D. Roth
10 years ago

@Sarah (#37) ??????? I rarely write about the similarities between weight loss and personal finance. Do you really feel like Get Rich Slowly has had a lot of them? And while my Year of Fitness is very much in the fore-front of my life right now, I intentionally try not to beat it to death here. Also, a word of warning: April e-mailed me this morning to say she’s going to write a follow-up to this post for next week, so the topic is coming back at least once more sometime soon… @Stefanie (#39) I’m not even sure what you… Read more »

TosaJen
TosaJen
10 years ago

I’ve also always seen the parallels. When I am maintaining a healthy weight, I’ve got a ton of systems and habits set up so that exercise and good eating happens with little pain. Same for healthy finances. When I have to agonize or spend lots of brainpower dealing with either, I’m in trouble. Automation is good. Willpower doesn’t work unless you have a lot of extra mental energy to spare. I’m in a bit of pain with both at the moment, because I started a new (lower-paying) job that limits my time, food choices, and the availability of exercise. I’ve… Read more »

Will
Will
10 years ago

J.D., Perfect is the enemy of good. Remember that? I’ve run the gamut from being 250lb at 12% bodyfat to 185lb at 15% to everything in between.The one thing that you have to realize, even if you do make drastic changes, is that your body will respond slowly. Recent research, I do not have time to dig the abstracts back up, has suggested that eating 2-3 times per day was just as effective for losing fat as eating 5-6 times per day, as long as one holds protein constant. It’s also much easier to maintain eating only 2-3 times per… Read more »

Shara
Shara
10 years ago

Robert, I never want to see you naked, ever. Nothing personal, I didn’t check out any pictures of you. But on principle, please don’t.

😛

Heather
Heather
10 years ago

I think the Flylady way is the way to go with both. Babysteps!!!!

Meaning, don’t make a huge drastic change to either your diet/exercise or your spending/budget habits. Make one change at a time and build over time. It keeps you from burning out. I am building my habits slowly on both of these and I know every day things are getting better.

Kelly
Kelly
10 years ago

People are too extreme with their exercise. They don’t seem to believe that less intense things “count” as exercise, like walking. Many people either go for a run or sit on the couch. Crazy, what about a 20 min walk when you aren’t motivated for a run. The awesome thing about walking is that you can just put on some shoes and head out the front door. No need to change clothes or warm up or drive somewhere or whatever other barriers. Keep some shoes in your car so that you can walk and talk with friends. In my experience… Read more »

Amanda
Amanda
10 years ago

For losing weight I strongly recommend the book “the philosopher’s diet.” It’s a good diet book for thinkers and it also talks a little about how you should perceive and engage in life.

Weight management is what it is, management. Moderation is key to effective management and it’s also a virtue.

The youtube link was disturbing. No one try that at home! That was very unhealthy.

Shara
Shara
10 years ago

Weight loss and debt loss are similar, especially at the extremes. But for people in the middle I think it just depends on personality. I have never had a problem with money. It just comes to me. However I do struggle with weight. I am only about 20# overweight (on a 6′ frame) but losing it is really hard. But the hardest part about cutting spending is getting my husband on board.

H Lee D
H Lee D
10 years ago

I lost 70 pounds and have kept it off for years. Your best bet is to make small changes that you can stick with, and stick with them. The difference between food and money is that from the time we are very small, we are rewarded and bribed with food, so it has a VERY strong emotional connection. (How many kids who can’t WALK are given cookies? How many kids are given a piece of candy to be quiet? How many kids are rewarded with dessert for eating their dinner?) Instead of haphazardly cutting things out of your diet, make… Read more »

slowth
slowth
10 years ago

Mr. Brokamp, fitness isn’t my forte, but I decided to read this anyway. The paragraph that ends with the Hershey syrup line is solid gold. I needed a good laugh.

J.D., you’re note about not displaying the Gates/Buffett image set off my rage meter. It’s not your fault, of course. Fair use should cover that. I suggest everyone read Free Culture, by Lawrence Lessig.

chacha1
chacha1
10 years ago

I would agree that Robert shouldn’t obsess about the numbers. P90X sounds a little extreme. 3 lbs in 3 wks is acceptable. My advice as a trainer is that clients should focus on functionality. Can you walk/run/go up stairs faster/longer without getting breathless? Can you do more push-ups, more leg lifts, more crunches per minute? That kind of thing. Most fitness professionals agree that most people can’t exercise enough to lose weight through exercise alone. Nutrition plays an indispensable part, especially when you are just starting out and are unfit. As you get more fit, your exercise potential rises and… Read more »

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